July 21, 2024

How Does Dog Bite Law Work in New York?

If you’re asking this question, you probably have a good reason: You or someone close to you has been bitten by a dog. Or maybe your dog has bitten someone and you need to know what you could be liable for. (As a dog owner, you should already know this, but it’s better late than never.) Let’s get to some answers.

Legal Approaches: Strict Liability vs. the ‘One-Bite Rule’

Dog bites are handled in one of two ways, depending on a state’s laws. Either a state uses strict liability or it follows what’s known as the “one-bite rule.”

Strict liability demands that a dog owner is responsible for all harm caused by the dog. It doesn’t matter whether the owner had any reason to think the dog was dangerous.

The “one-bite rule” can let an owner off the hook the first time a dog causes harm. Under this approach, an owner is not held responsible if they had no knowledge that the dog might cause harm.

These laws don’t really give a dog and its owner “one free bite.” They require that some action by the animal—such as threatening others, fierce barking, jumping on people, or fighting with other dogs—would lead a reasonable person to suspect that the dog might cause harm.

New York Is a ‘Mixed’ State

Some states mix the two rules, having both strict liability and allowances for dogs not known to be dangerous. New York is one of those states.

If a dog has already been deemed dangerous (or should have been), the owner can be held strictly liable for any harm the animal causes. That applies to people and pets, farm animals and livestock, and service animals.

But if a dog hasn’t been deemed “dangerous,” its owner can still be held responsible if the victim can prove that the owner was negligent. If, for instance, an owner didn’t leash his dog or keep it in a secure enclosure, and that dog ran off and bit someone, the bite victim might be able to sue the dog’s owner. They’ll have to show that the owner’s actions were careless and led to the injury or other damage.

Exceptions to the Rules

New York law isn’t unforgiving. (The statute is more than eight pages long—we’ve done the hard part and summarized the important details.)

Police dogs doing their job are exempt from this law. If a dog is defending a person against a crime (an assault or robbery, for instance), the dog won’t be considered dangerous. And the owner won’t be held liable. If a dog is protecting itself or its offspring, any harm it causes in response might be deemed justified.

Also, if a dog was subjected to pain and suffering or the dog or a person or animal known to it was threatened or harmed, the law may excuse any injury that results.

Penalties Can Add Up

Dog owners found guilty of causing harm through negligence can face criminal penalties up to a $3,000 fine and ninety days in jail. But they can also be forced to pay for any medical costs and damages their animal caused. And that can add up to a lot more. Dog bite victims can also seek non-economic damages.

New York Dog Bite Lawyer

If you’ve been harmed by a known dangerous dog or by any dog through the negligence of its owner, you have the right to damages from that animal’s owner to cover all your expenses. You may also deserve compensation for pain and suffering.

Discuss your options with Greenstein & Milbauer, LLP. For years, the lawyers at our firm have helped clients reach full and fair settlements in dog bite injury cases. Call us today at 1-800-VICTIM2 (842-8462). You can also fill out the contact form at the bottom of the page to schedule a free consultation.

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